Muriel Dwyer – other resources

There has been so much talk about Muriel Dwyer technique for teaching/exploring language with your children – on our Playschool6 news group and on other amazing Montessori websites.  It truely does make teaching language much easier.

I’d like to share these resources with you;

One of my favourite websites, whatdidwedoallday – has a fantastic summary of how she implements Muriel Dwyer.

Kingdom of the Pink Princesses has great explanation and downloads of her work.

The teacher within also has high praise.

Please stay posted, I also have my reading folders to release soon.  Just need to get some pictures to show the outcome.






Muriel Dwyer – notes on how to implement it

In our language, I became really frustrated at the amout of work with the Montessori Pink/Blue/Green series.  In researching, the PBG series is not an AMI way of teaching language.  I then worked out that a little, cheap booklet was available, that many AMI Montessori schools implement or use a variation of it, called “A Path for the Exploration of Any Language Leading to Writing and Reading”, written by Muriel Dwyer.

To purchase this book, especially if you are outside the USA, like myself, please phone NAMTA and ask them to invoice and post you the book, or you might fall over at having to pay $200 for postage!  I only paid $18 for postage to Australia.
(New note – thanks to playschool6 group, you can buy the booklet in the UK from – £6 & £2.50 P&P)
After reading this booklet, I summarised it and posted this summary to the wonderful Playschool6 Montessori homeschool group.
Here is my summary ….
In the Introduction, Dwyer emphasises that the most important word to remember in the Montessori approach is ‘Exploration’.  Children need to have fun in exploring their language.  We need to give them the keys to language, so that they can go on exploring.  (Love it!)
Developing a child’s vocabulary and give him as many opportunities as possible to use it.

Home is the place where it all begins:

Getting started – important to work on:
– talk, sing, build vocab
– read stories and tell stories
– use correct names for things – as children explore around them, give them the words of what they are exploring, leaves, roughness, shapes, animals
– read little poems and jingles, and rhymes.
– teaching childlren how to speak and how to listen
As soon as children can speak, play the Sound Game or known as I spy
Key sounds in English:
a               qu
b               ai (aim)
c               ee (see)
d               ie (pie)
e               oa (boat)
f                oo (book)
g               ue (blue)
h               ou (out)
i                oy (toy)
j                er (her)
k               ar (car)
l                or (or)
m              th (moth)
n               sh (push)
o               ch (much)
p               au (Paul *US only)
Certain sounds can be written in more than one way – the above is a list of the main sounds.  Later the variations are explained, eg
– ai can also be ay, a-e, or ei
The key sounds means, they can produce the sounds in any word, even if it is spelt wrong.
The Sound Game
First step:
a) The object needs to be extremely obvious and you say, holding something in your hand, “I spy with my little eye something that I am holding in my hand that begins with a ‘c’.” (cat or comb)
The child cannot make a mistake, it is the only thing you are holding.
This first step takes a long time and should not be hurried.  Do not show the letter c to them.  It’s all only sounds, training the ear.  Make it fun.  Encourage loads.
b) Little by little, make it more difficult by having two objects, and encouraging the child to guess which object by giving the initial sound.
c) Make this then more difficult, until child can find the required object anywhere in the room.
Second stage:
Hearing the end sound and then later the middle sound.
a) beginning with a ‘b’ and ending with ‘x’ for box.
When he has found the object, ask him, “What sounds does it start with?”, “What sound does it end with?”
b) “Now what is the sound in the middle?”  Use words with 3 sounds.  b-o-x, ch-ur-ch Slowly increase to 4 sounds. ‘p-e-nn-y’, or ‘b-u-tt-er’
Guide the child until they can work out every sound contained in a word, however long.  Ask the child to think of a word, then break it down.
Do not rush this work – it’s core foundation work.
Third stage:
How many words the child can think of that begin or contain a certain sound.  Do this until child can give you whole group of words beginning or containing each of the 40 key sounds.
The above with NO reference to symbols.  the child needs to be aware of the sounds they use in speech.  This needs to be an enjoyable pasttime.
This pre-reading period, important to have stories, songs and poems every day.  Good to aim to encourage children to learn at least one poem by heart each week.
Sandpaper letters
a) Once sound game almost complete – sandpaper letters introduced for both alphabet and key phonograms.  40 sandpaper letters.
Letters should be introduced 2 or 3 at a time – with 3-period lesson.
Except for first presentation of sandpaper letters, rest of presentations, mix them up with alphabet and key phonograms.
b) Play game:  Lay out all known symbols.  Ask a child to fetch a sound.  Ask child to feel the sound.  Then another child asks another child to fetch a sound, until all the sounds have been fetched.
Should only take 2-3 weeks for all sandpaper letters to be learnt.  Don’t call the sandpaper letters, sounds.  So say something like can you find the sandpaper letter with the sound ‘b’.
Once they can bring you all the sandpaper letters, start the moveable alphabet.
Moveable alphabet {MO}
1. First, before making words, get child to take letter out of box and sort them back into box into their correct place, so that they know the positions of the various letters.
Key purpose of moveable alphabet, enable child to express themselves freely in graphic form.
2. Encourage and help child to think of word.  Analyse the word into its component sounds.  Take out appropriate letters and place them in order on the mat.  If the previous stages have been properly covered, the child will have no difficulty.
3. When he can make single words (which she says is after 1 or 2 days!) – encourage him to write events of daily life, stories he likes or rhymes and poems.
If he writes, ‘plai’ for play or any other mistakes, it doesn’t matter.  This is to encourage expression.
Remember Montessori approach is to present one difficulty or point of interest at a time.
If children do not use moveable alpha correctly, sign that preparation has not been done well and lively approach is lacking!  (Good hint for us too serious mums!)  We need to be enthusiastic about language so that our children pick this up and follow.
Important hint:  Don’t give pictures with {MO} – halts their free expression of words and thoughts.  Words been dictated (pictures) – limits their exploration.  If he is exploring his own mind, he quickly writes whole sentences.
We need to open door and then let them explore by:
 – above suggestions on language development plus
– tell their news
– encourage enthusiasm
Much later, once writing is happening and they want to write their stories on paper, first express using {MO}, then need to ask you to look at it.  If anything is spelt incorrectly, discuss it with child and make changes.  Mustn’t form habit of writing incorrectly.
Beginning of reading
Important, to note of difference of reading and writing – {MO} or writing with paper and pencil, is process of analysis. Therefore words are in child’s head, they analyse words and express.  The words are known to them, so no deciphering.
Reading, the words are not known – we do know what is written, until we decipher.  A different process.  That is why reading is more difficult and important not to ask children to read until we work on the following stages.  With {MO}, we read what we see, we don’t ask child to read to us.
When to introduce reading – wait and watch.  When a child looks at words and tries to decipher, sounding out the words.  Child says, ‘b-o-x’.  You say, let’s say that quickly, ‘b o x’, oh box.  Go quicker and quicker, to form (blend the word).
When child is doing this, choose so start with two activities, object boxes or activity words.  Start with whatever you prefer.
Object boxes
Object box 1:
Attractive box with doz little phonetic objects (no phonograms in word) – pen, pelican, dog, mat, pump etc
Together take out objects, one at time.  Ask child to name each object, as they are taken out.  If he doesn’t know the name, remove and later teach him name.
Take slip of paper and pencil and invite child to give the object she is thinking of.  Write name of object on paper, help him sound out the put together the letters she has written, until child yells out word, finds object and gives it to her.
Important to write name of object in front of child.
Once done with ease, introduce object box 2
Each day, contents should be changed by yourself or older child.
Object box 2:
Once again, new attractive box, with 12 or so objects or pictures, which all contain just one key sound phonogram.  Every day contents should changed.
ship, pie, snail, rain, dish, brush, broom etc
Procedure as above.
If child struggles – draw line under under the two letters, like sh for ship.
Note, only use key sounds – can’t use object/words like rake, or tray.  They come later.  One new thing at a time.
Activity Word Game
Yeah! most action words are phonetic in the 40 key sounds!
As with object boxes – now two sets of cards to be prepared, so that we have one set with only phonetic words and another with one phonogram in the word.
Each set is a specific colour (that you choose).  Ask the child to read then act out the word.
Set 1
phonetic actions like – gulp, sit, sniff
Set 2
one 2 letter combined word (key sound phonogram) and rest phonetic letters, like:
chop, load, march, seek, munch
Important that if possible, one rather writes the words the word in front of child, like with object boxes.
Puzzle words
Explain, some words just don’t have any rules and just have to remember.
Only include common words, used by child like, I, the, was they, one, two, fruit
Introduce 2 or 3 at a time, 3 period lesson
Handmade books
Make books and introduce beginner reader books, with words child knows.
At this point, children need to know names and sounds of alphabet – songs.
Folders of keys sounds and variations
Now children are ready for new exploration.
{Where a key sound has variations – these folders need to be made, e.g ee sound has variations of ea, e-e, y, ie. )
A main folder (12cm x 10cm) with the key sound (‘ee’), written large on outside of folder.  Inside folder,
– a card (8cm x 10cm) with each variation of the key sound (write name of key sound on back, for sorting game later).
– booklets (18cm folded, ie 9cm each page, by 12cm) with words of that variation sound.  The variation needs be be written in second colour.
– key sound folder, ‘er’
– cards inside are, ‘ir’, ‘ur’
– booklets with words for sounds ‘ir’ and ‘ur’
Before you can continue with this work, child needs to know the key sound on outside of folder.
Explain that each card has same sounds as one on outside of the folder.  Once understood, child can work through rest of folders on own, if choosing.
Suggest to start with a folder that has the silent ‘e’ in variation, like ai, ee, ie, oa or ue.
With the ai folder, first introduce other sounds, then with a_e card, write t on the dash.  Cover the e, to show the word, ‘at’.  Ask child to read the word.  The lift your hand, covering the ‘e’ – explain it’s the silent (magic) ‘e’ – it doesn’t say anything, but the vowel before the consonant, and it says the name of the letter and not it’s sound, so the word is now ‘ate’.
With the same slip, then write ‘m’ or ‘l’, hide the ‘e’ again, read word.  The reveal ‘e’ and explain it now makes the late or mate.
Words in booklets, should only contain one phonogram.
Sounds and their phonograms:
ar :      ar, a
er :     er, ir, ur
or :     or, au, aw, ough, oar  (US ‘au’ on outside and no ‘or’ card and booklet)
ai :      ai, ay, ei, a_e
ee :     ee, ea, e_e, y, ie (was wondering where ‘y’ was)
ie :     ie, y, i_e, igh (interesting y repeated)
oa :     oa, oe, ow, o_e
ue :     ue, ew, oo, u_e
ou :     ou, ow
oy :     oy, oi
s :      s, ce, ci
f :      f, ph
e :     e, ea
j :      j, ge/gi
Sorting exercise
Helps the child memorize the various family phonograms.
Child takes two folders at a time, takes out cards (not booklets), mixes cards and the sorts into correct folder.
Key phonograms is written on back of card.  Once two at a time easily done, goes onto 3, then 4 until all 14 can be done.
Practice to memorize phonograms.
The test
With moveable alphabet or pencil and paper – child write key sound, from front of folder.  Then from memory, tries to write all different phonograms or letters, eg
er = er, ir, ur
Puzzle words, extended
Now time to explain anything special with interesting words, like silent ‘k’ or ‘b’ or ‘gh’,
knot, knee, climb, thumb, hare, air, stall etc.
Phonogram dictionary
Parallel with the folders, child should be introduced to Classified card, ‘the function game’, ‘word study’ – and reading books in library.
But to prevent frustration in having not memorized all phonograms, create a dictionary, like an address folder of phonograms.  So if he finds a word with ei – he can go to the dictionary to look up what this sound should sound like.  He will find ‘ei’, with ‘ai’ next to it.  So he can look up these words anytime.
Even though I think my summary is very thorough, I’d still recommend buying this booklet.  I still grab it constantly.

Muriel Dwyer – Sentence strips

After a child knows their sounds, including the phonograms – you introduce little booklets.  Instead of using booklets, my good friend at Montessori Tidbits, Leann, mentioned this site to me … It’s a bit of a plethora to navigate to get what you want, but the secret to phonograms is found here – under Phonogram booklets

These are just wonderful, pictures with little stories for each one.  But, some of the sentences were just not right for us …so I made my own.

sample of phonogram

In Word, I went and cut and pasted the pictures I wanted and added text appropriate for the phonograms associated.

Some of the pictures I just used the text the author had, but wanted it in Word to be a consistent font throughout.

I then made them into matching cards, sentence on one card, picture on the other. Of course, coloured-in each picture.  🙂

Sentence strips

On the back of each card, is a matching colour cut-out.  I just used coloured paper and my punches, modge-podge over.

Sentence strip 2

And then, put each phonogram into an envelope with it’s label on the outside.

Phonogram box

I’m so sorry that I can’t give you my files complete – I printed out all the files and then created sentences in Word, which I then matched.  So if you want my sentences, here they are in Word …

phonogram sentences match nonpictures

Then you need to download and print – or cut and paste into my Word document the matching picture.  Because this comes from a site, I cannot give this out due to copywrite.

As mentioned, phonogram booklets here

Now a hint about downloading loads of pdf’s or other documents – in Firefox, I use an extension called ‘DownThemAll’.  It adds a tool to your right-mouse click in Firefox, which will download in one step all the files on the page for you.  No downloading each file at a time!